Citrus and Pine Cleaners, Plus Ozone
Citrus and Pine Cleaners: Natural Ozone can combine with Pine and Citrus to form chemicals such as formaldehyde and acetone
Influence of ozone concentration and temperature on ultra-fine particle and gaseous volatile organic compound formations generated during the ozone-initiated reactions with emitted terpenes from a car air freshener.
J Hazard Mater. 2008 Oct 30;158(2-3):471-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.01.095. Epub 2008 Feb 7.
Lamorena RB, Lee W.
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Daejon, Republic of Korea.
Experiments were conducted to identify the emissions from the car air freshener and to identify the formation of ultra-fine particles and secondary gaseous compounds during the ozone-initiated oxidations with emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The identified primary constituents emitted from the car air freshener in this study were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, p-cymene, and limonene.
Formation of ultra-fine particles (4.4-160nm) was observed when ozone was injected into the chamber containing emitted monoterpenes from the air freshener. Particle number concentrations, particle mass concentrations, and surface concentrations were measured in time dependent experiments to describe the particle formation and growth within the chamber.
The irritating secondary gaseous products formed during the ozone-initiated reactions include formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, and propionaldehyde.
Ozone concentration (50 and 100ppb) and temperature (30 and 40 degrees C) significantly affect the formation of particles and gaseous products during the ozone-initiated reactions. The results obtained in this study provided an insight on the potential exposure of particles and irritating secondary products formed during the ozone-initiated reaction to passengers in confined spaces.
PMID: 18336999 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Indoor Air. 2006 Jun;16(3):168-78.
Influence of ozone-limonene reactions on perceived air quality.
Tamás G, Weschler CJ, Toftum J, Fanger PO.
International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, 2800-Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
This study conducted short-term assessments of perceived air quality (PAQ) for six different realistic concentrations of ozone and limonene, separately or together, in room air. The impact of filtration and the influence of the ozone generation method were also examined. The evaluations were made in four identical 40 m3 low-polluting test offices ventilated at 1.4 h(-1) or in two identical 30 m3 stainless-steel chambers ventilated at 1.9 h(-1). Concentrations of ozone, total volatile organic compounds and size-fractionated particles were continuously monitored in each experiment. The results indicate that, for each of the six conditions, the PAQ was poorer when ozone and limonene were present together compared with when only ozone or only limonene was present. In the test offices a correlation was observed between the number of secondary organic aerosols produced by a given ozone/limonene condition and the sensory pollution load for that condition. The particles themselves do not appear to be the primary causative agents, but instead are co-varying surrogates for sensory offending gas-phase species.
PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Although the health consequences of long-term exposures to the products of ozone-initiated indoor chemistry remain to be determined, we judge that the sensory offending nature of selected products provides an additional reason to limit indoor ozone levels. Devices that emit ozone at significant rates should not be used indoors. Ozone-filtration of make-up air should also be beneficial in mechanically ventilated buildings located in regions that repeatedly violate outdoor ozone standards. Additionally, the use of limonene containing products should be curtailed during periods when indoor ozone levels are elevated.
PMID: 16683936 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Dec;108(12):1139-45.
Ozone and limonene in indoor air: a source of submicron particle exposure.
Wainman T, Zhang J, Weschler CJ, Lioy PJ.
Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8020, USA.
Little information currently exists regarding the occurrence of secondary organic aerosol formation in indoor air. Smog chamber studies have demonstrated that high aerosol yields result from the reaction of ozone with terpenes, both of which commonly occur in indoor air. However, smog chambers are typically static systems, whereas indoor environments are dynamic. We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the potential for secondary aerosol in indoor air as a result of the reaction of ozone with d-limonene, a compound commonly used in air fresheners. A dynamic chamber design was used in which a smaller chamber was nested inside a larger one, with air exchange occurring between the two. The inner chamber was used to represent a model indoor environment and was operated at an air exchange rate below 1 exchange/hr, while the outer chamber was operated at a high air exchange rate of approximately 45 exchanges/hr. Limonene was introduced into the inner chamber either by the evaporation of reagent-grade d-limonene or by inserting a lemon-scented, solid air freshener. A series of ozone injections were made into the inner chamber during the course of each experiment, and an optical particle counter was used to measure the particle concentration. Measurable particle formation and growth occurred almost exclusively in the 0.1-0.2 microm and 0.2-0.3 microm size fractions in all of the experiments. Particle formation in the 0.1-0.2 microm size range occurred as soon as ozone was introduced, but the formation of particles in the 0.2-0.3 microm size range did not occur until at least the second ozone injection occurred. The results of this study show a clear potential for significant particle concentrations to be produced in indoor environments as a result of secondary particle formation via the ozone-limonene reaction. Because people spend the majority of their time indoors, secondary particles formed in indoor environments may make a significant contribution to overall particle exposure. This study provides data for assessing the impact of outdoor ozone on indoor particles. This is important to determine the efficacy of the mass-based particulate matter standards in protecting public health because the indoor secondary particles can vary coincidently with the variations of outdoor fine particles in summer.