Excerpts from The Guide to Less Toxic Products
The Guide to Less Toxic Products
Environmental Health Association of Nova Scotia
The Environmental Health Association of Nova Scotia (EHANS) produces the Guide to Less Toxic Products. This on-line guide provides information on less toxic personal products, cleaning materials, baby products and more.
The Guide divides products into three categories: Best, Good, and Simply Unscented and also gives information on ingredients to avoid.
The purpose is to provide consumers with accurate information for reducing unnecessary chemical exposure and for reducing toxic chemicals in the environment.
It is available on line at www.lesstoxicguide.ca
Excerpts from The Guide to Less Toxic Products
by The Environmental Health Association of Nova Scotia
Why a Guide to Less Toxic Products?
“We live in a chemical world. Over 5000 chemicals have entered daily use since WW II, many of them found in the products we use every day to clean and beautify our bodies and our homes. Scientists are increasingly concerned that long-term low-level exposures to chemicals create a variety of health risks. They also worry that we do not yet know the impact of living with the cocktail of chemicals found in household air and dust. Testing for human health effects is normally done on single chemicals, but in the real world, we are all exposed to a variety of chemicals every single day.
Everyone can benefit from using less toxic products. For people with chemical sensitivities, allergies, asthma and other diseases who become ill when exposed to ingredients in many conventional products, finding less toxic products is a necessity. But as studies continue to reveal startling information on long term health hazards associated with commonly used chemicals, including cancers and reproductive problems, more people are looking for less toxic products as a healthy lifestyle choice.
Many people assume that “if it was bad for us, the government would not allow it to be sold.” But we know that regulatory bodies are slow to act. Legislation governing pest control products was only amended in 2002, after over 30 years without change and review of pest control products is just beginning. … Health Canada has been slow to restrict many chemicals currently in use, including identified or suspected carcinogens, hormone disrupters and reproductive toxins. The process of evaluating and regulating all the chemicals we use in our daily lives is going to be slow. And past experiences in regulating lead in gasoline, tobacco and lawn pesticides tell us that the companies which produce these products won’t take attempts to limit their use quietly.
Who Needs a Guide to Less Toxic Products?
People who want to raise their children in a healthier environment: Children are especially vulnerable to toxins in their environment. Indoor air in the home is often 8 to 10 times more polluted than outdoor air, and has been measured at up to 100 times worse. Cleaning products, personal care products and chemical pest controls are major sources of indoor pollution. By using healthier products such as those listed in the Guide, you can provide a healthier environment for your children.
People who want to live a healthier lifestyle: More and more people are becoming aware that many commonly used products contain harmful ingredients. But where do you look for healthier ones. Just because a company advertises its product as “natural”, “green”, “non-toxic”, or “eco-friendly” doesn’t make it so. By providing information on common hazardous ingredients, and by researching the ingredients in many products, the Guide provides a shortcut to identifying healthier products in the consumer jungle.
People whose schools or workplaces have gone scent free: Finding alternatives to replace scented products can sometimes be a hassle. This Guide should make it easier. Note: A few products in the Best or Good sections contain strong natural fragrances and may not be suitable for scent free environments. Check ingredient labels or do a smell test.
People with chemical sensitivities: People’s sensitivities vary, and what one person can tolerate, another cannot. Every product listed in the guide won’t necessarily be tolerable for each person with chemical sensitivities. But the guide is a starting point, and can provide valuable tips on products which may work for you. All the products are free of synthetic scents (to the best of our knowledge.) Many of the products have been used successfully by people with chemical sensitivities. Products for the chemically sensitive will most likely be found in the Best and Good sections, but may also be found in Simply Unscented. Also check the “Make your own” recipes and Tips for useful suggestions. The Guide may also help you to find products which you can recommend to neighbors whose household cleaners are making you sick, or friends and relatives you would like to socialize with if only they used products which you could tolerate.
Asthmatics and others allergic to synthetic scents: All products listed are, to the best of our knowledge, free of synthetic scents. Products in the Simply Unscented category are also free of strong natural fragrances.
Friends and family of people with chemical sensitivities: Many family members of people with sensitivities don’t know where to start to find products that their loved ones can tolerate. This Guide should help, but remember, everyone’s sensitivities are different. Your ultimate guide is the sensitive person him or herself.
People who care about the environment: although the focus of the Guide is on finding products which are healthier for humans, less toxic products are generally also less toxic for the natural environment. By using less toxic products, fewer harmful chemicals are flushed down drains into our waterways, and fewer harmful materials pollute the air, fewer toxic wastes are created in manufacturing, and fewer harmful breakdown products are created in the environment. A cleaner natural environment, especially clean air and water, is critical for all species, including human beings.
Products in the Simply Unscented category are products with ingredients comparable to most conventional products, but without added fragrances, whether synthetic or natural. That does not mean they will have no smell, since many ingredients, both plant based and synthetic, have smells.
Why no Synthetic Fragrances?
Most fragrances are no longer made from natural substances, but are made from synthetic chemicals. There can be as many as 100 chemicals in a single fragrance. In 1989 the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health evaluated 2,983 fragrance chemicals for health effects. They identified 884 of them as toxic substances.
The US Environmental Protection Agency found that 100% of perfumes contain toluene, a toxic volatile organic compound (VOC). Despite this, proposed government regulations which would require “complete” ingredient listing on cosmetics labels will not require a complete listing of fragrance ingredients but simply the word “fragrance” or “masking agent.” Fragrance ingredients are exempt from disclosure as trade secrets.
The average North American uses between 17 and 21 scented products per day, exposing themselves to a random chemical soup with unknown health effects. According to the US Food and Drug Administration, fragrances cause 30% of all allergic reactions, and 70% of all asthmatics develop respiratory symptoms when exposed to perfumes.
Companies which manufacture products with all natural ingredients often use natural fragrances for added scent. Some companies who use both natural and synthetic ingredients have chosen to substitute natural fragrances for synthetic ones. In both cases, this eliminates some of the toxic chemicals found in synthetic fragrances, like toluene and phthalates. However, some people become ill when exposed to natural fragrances, so natural fragrances are not a good choice for a scent-free environment.
Finding Unscented Products
Identifying unscented products is not as easy as you might think. Product labels which say “Unscented” can be misleading. These products often contain masking agents to cover unpleasant smells of other ingredients. In most cases, these masking agents are synthetic fragrances. This practice is allowed by Industry Canada, the government department responsible for monitoring misleading labeling. Industry Canada states there is no firm rule about how much fragrance is allowed in products labeled “Unscented.” The general rule is that it must not be more than is needed for masking other scents. On average, industry representatives say that “Unscented” products contain .6% scent, while scented products contain on average 1.5 % scent, two and a half times as much.
This labeling practice creates obvious problems for people who are allergic to scents… If you have questions about a product, you can call the manufacturer to ask if a product contains any added fragrance. They are required to tell you whether a product contains an ingredient if it may create a health hazard for you.”
Scents may be found in some unlikely places. For example, “Odor guard” in Glad kitchen garbage bags is in fact nothing more than fragrance. Scents have also been found as ingredients in children’s toys, rubber boots, and car wash detergents.
Different manufacturers use different words to label their unscented products. Some of these include “Pure”, “Scent-free”, “Fragrance Free”, “Sensitive skin formula”, “Hypo-allergenic”, “All-sensitive”, etc. Although these words have no legal definition, they may help you identify truly unscented products.
Beware of Greenwashing
Natural, Green, Eco-friendly, Botanical. You will find these words on many product labels. But in fact, there are no legal definitions for these words. Often manufacturers of hazardous products dress up their containers with pretty pictures of flowers and fruit to play on our desire for more natural products. A company may promote one healthy sounding ingredient (“With Goat’s Milk”, “With Vitamin E”) in a product whose other ingredients are not healthy at all.
Some companies will list ingredients as being derived from plants, like coconut or corn. But the plant may have gone through so many chemical processes, sometimes involving toxic solvents, that the resulting ingredient bears little resemblance to the original plant material.
Everything Natural isn’t Safe, and Vice Versa
Natural is not always non-toxic. Some natural ingredients have proven harmful effects. For example, d-limonene, found in orange peels, is a powerful solvent. It has been found to be a sensitizer and causes severe reactions in some people. Sodium lauryl sulfate, often derived from coconut, is a known skin irritant which enhances allergic response to other toxins and allergens. Sodium laureth sulfate may be contaminated with 1,4-dioxane, a carcinogen. The U.S. government has warned manufacturers of unacceptable levels of dioxin formation in some products containing this ingredient. In some cases petrochemical ingredients, particularly those which are not volatile, can be good less toxic choices.
Learn to Read Labels
It’s important to know how to read a label. Although we are providing brand names of less-toxic products, our list is by no means complete. And the formulation of a product could change for better or for worse at any time. If you know the hazards of some key ingredients, you are better equipped to evaluate for yourself the products on store shelves.
In Canada and the US, ingredients are listed in order of quantity. The first ingredient in the list makes up the greatest amount of the product, the last ingredient is present in the least quantity.
Note: Ingredient lists may not contain all ingredients. On some product only the “active” ingredients, those whose primary purpose is to achieve the main objective of the product, may be listed. Other ingredients which may have harmful health effects may not be listed at all.
Manufacturer’s Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), which are another source of ingredient information, are not required to list ingredients which make up less than 1% of a product.
In Canada, manufacturers are not required to list ingredients on labels of personal care products or household cleaning products. Many companies using less-toxic ingredients are eager to make their ingredients known, and provide this information on labels or on information sheets or posters in stores.
Routes of Exposure
The route of exposure is the pathway by which a chemical enters the body. There are three principal routes of exposure: through the skin (absorption), through the lungs (inhalation), and via the mouth to the digestive tract (ingestion). The type of exposure can affect the impact a chemical has.
A chemical which is not volatile (thus is not inhaled) but can be absorbed may be a good choice in a furniture polish, but more hazardous in a skin crème. A chemical which is less toxic as a liquid may become more toxic when it becomes a spray, or a vapour when heated or mixed with hot water.
Many people believe that the skin is an effective barrier to toxins. But what we put on our skin all too often passes through the skin and into the blood. From there it is carried to various organs including the brain, liver and kidneys, where it may have immediate or long term effects. Absorption can be a significant source of exposure to the chemicals in personal care products, since they may be applied to the skin frequently and in large amounts. The scalp is an especially absorbent part of the body.
The skin is one of the most common routes of exposure. If a chemical can penetrate the skin, its toxicity depends in part on how much absorption takes place. The greater the absorption, the greater the potential for a chemical to exert a toxic effect. While chemicals are absorbed much more readily through damaged or abraded skin, chemicals can penetrate intact, healthy skin.
Skin irritation is a common result of skin contact with certain chemicals. But of greater concern are effects which result from substances which are absorbed and circulated throughout the body and can damage many body systems.
Inhalation Another source of exposure is inhalation. Unlike the skin, lung tissue is not meant to be a protective barrier against chemical exposure. Lung tissue is very thin and allows the passage not only of oxygen, but also of many other chemicals directly into the blood. Once in the blood, inhaled chemicals pass to the heart and are then distributed to other organs without first passing through the detoxification process of the liver. In addition to causing systemic damage, chemicals that pass through the lung surface may injure lung tissue and interfere with its vital role of oxygen supply.
Some ingredients in personal care products, and many ingredients in household cleaning products become airborne and become part of the air we breathe at home, at work and in schools. Any substance which is airborne can have an impact through inhalation. Some substances are volatile in any state, others become airborne when heat is applied, and still others become airborne when used as sprays. Aerosol sprays are of particular concern, as the particles they produce are very small.
Chemicals can become airborne either as tiny particles, as gases or as vapours. Inhalation of particles depends upon their size and shape; the smaller the particle, the further into the respiratory tract it can penetrate. Gases and vapours, being smaller, are more deeply inhaled. Some of the particles breathed in will enter the gut directly and may affect the gut by reacting with it chemically. Chemical laden particles may be absorbed from the gut and cause effects in other parts of the body.
Ingestion Chemicals which are ingested enter the body via the mouth, either directly or when cleared from the lungs. Obviously, chemicals can be ingested when they are on or in products we eat or drink. They can also be ingested from substances which are applied near the mouth, eg. lipstick or lip gloss. Or they can be transferred to the mouth through hand to mouth activity. Children, who put their hands everywhere including in their mouths or chew on a variety of objects, are particularly likely to ingest chemicals this way. Chemicals that are ingested enter the body by absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Absorption of chemicals can occur anywhere along the digestive tract, from the mouth to the rectum, but the major site for absorption is the small intestine.
Essential Oils – Tips & Cautions
Essential oils are extremely concentrated plant derivatives, and if used should be used with caution. Here are some basic tips.
Do not use essential oils undiluted or in too high a concentration. Essential oils are very concentrated. If some is good, MORE IS NOT BETTER. Using too much can result in sensitization, and may burn or irritate skin or mucus membranes.
Oil and water does not mix. Recipes with essential oils must include an emulsifier to make sure the oil is dispersed equally throughout the product. If not, there is danger of sensitization. Shaking up an essential oil in water does not disperse it sufficiently. Some recipes are still circulating from a time before this was understood, and should not be used.
SaSalts, fat or alcohol can function as emulsifiers. Vodka, witch hazel, aloe vera gel, cornstarch and vinegar can also be used. Sea salts are especially good for bath products. Add oils to the salts first and let sit. Then add salts to bath. Whole milk can also be used as an emulsifier (not skim, its the FAT that is needed for the oil to mix with.) Fractionated sweet almond oil is a good emulsifier, and is available at most health food stores and stores which sell essential oils.
Essential oils used incorrectly can become sensitizers. Any essential oil used undiluted on the skin can have sensitization effects. Essential oils can become sensitizers over time if they are used without an emulsifier, and so are not actually dispersed in water. This can be true for essential oils used in baths, cleaners, or any product used on the skin or in the mouth. Undispersed oils can also burn skin and mucus membranes. No essential oil should be used on open cuts, to avoid oils entering the bloodstream directly.
Some oils are more powerful than others. Tea tree oil is very powerful and has to be properly blended. If not fully diluted, or used at concentrations which are too high, it can cause sensitization. Some essential oils are known sensitizers and should not be used at all. These include sweet birch, benzolin and cajuput. Other oils have known health hazards. Lemon and orange oil contain d’limonene which is a sensitizer and neurotoxin. Sage (salfia officinalis) can tend to be sensitizing and can be a problem for people who are pregnant, as well as those with high blood pressure or epilepsy. (Clary sage is less toxic.) Cinnamon oil can be irritating to skin. Although they are natural products, oils need to be used carefully.
Many people with chemical sensitivities are sensitive to even small quantities of essential oils, especially the stronger smelling ones including tea tree, lemon and patchouli. Others find they can tolerate them. Even natural scents are not appropriate for scent-free workplaces.
Essential oils come in different grades. Therapeutic grade is the most pure and will not have pesticide residues or contain any synthetic oils. Cosmetic grade oils may contain pesticide residues and may be diluted with synthetic chemicals.
Equivalencies: Each oil is different, but on average 20 drops equals 1 mil, and 100 drops = 1 tsp.
Thanks to Casaroma Wellness Centre, Dartmouth N.S. for assistance with this section.
Institutional & Industrial Cleaning
If it’s important to use less toxic products in our homes, it’s equally important to use them in our workplaces and public institutions. There is growing recognition of the importance of indoor air quality at work from an employee viewpoint. Institutions also need to consider the impact of cleaning products on the health of users. Hospitals, schools, nursing homes and day care centres are places where children, the ill and the elderly spend many hours, and these are groups which are especially vulnerable to hazardous chemicals. Use of less toxic products, particularly those which are scent free and low in solvents make public places more accessible to people with chemical sensitivities and asthma. Cleaning staff who spend 40 hours a week working with cleaning chemicals, often in concentrated formulations, are an occupational group which is often exposed to many carcinogens and other hazardous substances.
Cleaning products are increasingly recognized as a significant source of indoor air pollution, as well as contributing to broader environmental pollution. As more institutions adopt scent free and environmentally friendly policies, the demand for less toxic alternatives is increasing. The good news is that these products exist, and finding them is not that difficult.
As with every type of product, finding the right one for the job is a process. If you use one less toxic product which you don’t find effective for a particular job, don’t conclude that the only alternative is the toxin containing product you have always used. The range of product options is expanding as the hazards of many existing products become better understood and the demand for less toxic alternatives increases. Less toxic choices are not necessarily more expensive, and in some cases can save money.
The following points will assist people looking for less toxic cleaning options for institutional use.
In many cases, the products and recipes in the household cleaning section can be used in institutional settings.
The website of the Janitorial Products Pollution Prevention Program (JP4), provides information and sources for less toxic institutional cleaners. See http://www.wrppn.org/Janitorial/commentaries.cfm and www.wrppn.org/Janitorial/jp4.cfm. These lists were developed in the US, but many products are available in Canada, sometimes under different brand names.
The Labour Environmental Alliance Society in British Columbia is a valuable source of information on toxins in cleaning products, as well as how to find less toxic alternatives. Ask for their pamphlet, Toxins and Cleaners, and visit their website www.leas.ca. Bebbington Industries http://www.bebbington.ns.ca, a Nova Scotia company, manufactures the Green Knight line of institutional/industrial cleaning products. Products bear the Ecologo label and have been evaluated as very low in human health impacts.
Look for products which meet the Ecologo www.environmentalchoice.com (Canada), Envirodesic www.envirodesic.com (Canada) or Green Seal www.greenseal.org (US) standards. Products bearing these labels have undergone a third party evaluation. The standards are based principally on decreased harm to the environment, rather than to human health, but they are a good start. In many cases, the same chemicals are hazardous to both human health and the environment. Some products which meet these standards may not have been evaluated yet.
In any request for proposals or contract process, list ingredients which should not be contained in any products to be used in your workplace. Adopting an overall policy which specifies that your workplace will select cleaning products which are scent-free and least harmful to the environment, as the PEI government has done, provides a good starting point. Information on the most hazardous chemicals to avoid is available in the Toxins and Cleaners pamphlet from LEAS (see above #3) and on the JP4 site.
Maintenance in Schools, an article written by Karen Robinson of CASLE (Citizens for a Safe Learning Environment, www.chebucto.ns.ca/Education/CASLE), outlines many of the issues involved in choosing less toxic cleaning products.
The Canadian Auto Workers’ campaign to eliminate carcinogens in the workplace has identified many hazardous chemicals used in industrial processes. CAW has also identified substitutions which can be made for many of them. Cathy Walker, the CAW’s Director of Occupational Health and Safety heads up the Prevent Cancer campaign.
Types of Hazards
The hazards of ingredients in personal care and household products are varied. The following are some of the most common types of hazards, many of which will not become apparent for many years. Many chemicals have more than one adverse health effect.
Carcinogen: Cancers result from genetic alterations which generally develop years after exposures. Substances may be categorized as known, suspected or possible human carcinogens, based on the amount and type of research done on them.
Developmental toxin: A substance which has an adverse affect on a developing child, sub-category of reproductive toxin. Developmental toxins are also known as teratogens. They usually result from pre-natal exposure experienced by the mother, but can also result from pre-natal exposure by the father, or post-natal exposure of a developing child.
Endocrine or hormone toxin: In recent years, scientists have discovered that certain commonly used chemicals can disrupt our delicate endocrine systems. The endocrine system produces hormones in a variety of organs known as endocrine glands. These hormones travel in the bloodstream carrying messages from one part of the body to another. Endocrine disrupting chemicals can upset this communication system in a variety of ways. They can mimic natural hormones and send false messages, or block hormone receptors that receive messages. While researchers are only beginning to understand the health effects of these chemicals, they have already observed that hormone disruptions can result in damage to the brain, immune and reproductive systems.
The unborn child is particularly susceptible. Miniscule amounts of chemicals that may not harm an adult can have devastating effects at critical stages of development of the fetus. There is evidence that hormone-disrupting chemicals can result in learning disabilities, testicular cancer, impaired thyroid function, declining sperm counts and male genital defects.
Because hormone-disrupting chemicals mimic estrogen, it is suspected they are linked to the growing incidence of breast cancer. Very few ingredients are tested for reproductive or developmental effects caused by hormone disrupting chemicals.
Immune system toxin: A substance which has an adverse effect on the functioning of the immune system. Altered immune function may lead to increased incidence or severity of infectious diseases or cancers. Allergens are considered to be immunotoxicants, which can cause hypersensitivity reactions like asthma, rhinitis and anaphylaxis, as well as allergies.
Liver toxin: The liver functions as a center for metabolism, processing chemicals we are exposed to so they can be utilized, detoxified or excreted. The liver is exposed to toxicants that enter the body from ingestion and from absorption into the blood. Some chemicals are known to cause a variety of types of liver damage, from liver cell death to chronic liver damage to cancer.
Kidney toxin: Kidneys (like the liver) are vulnerable to chemical exposures because they process a high amount of the chemicals circulating in the body.
Mutagen: A mutagen is a substance which changes genes which are subsections of the DNA of cells. These mutations can be passed along as cells reproduce, sometimes leading to defective cells or cancer.
Neurotoxin: A substance which adversely effects the central nervous system or the peripheral nervous system resulting from exposure to chemical substances. These can include a wide range of effects from impairment of learning, memory, judgement and other mental functions, to fatigue, irritability and other behavioural changes. Effects can be short term or permanent. Peripheral nervous system damage can cause weakness in lower limbs, prickling or tingling in limbs, and loss of co-ordination. Personal care and household cleaning products are rarely tested for neurotoxic effects.
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (Quats): Listed on labels as benzalkonium chloride, cetrimonium bromide, quaternium-15 and quaternium 1-29, these compounds are caustic and can irritate the eyes. Quaternium-15 is a formaldehyde releaser and the number one cause of preservative-related contact dermatitis. There is concern about their potential as sensitizers. For about 5% of people, quats are an extreme sensitizer and can cause a variety of asthma-like symptoms, even respiratory arrest. When they are used with hot running water, steam increases the inhalation of vapours. These compounds are used in a wide range of cleaning products and disinfectants as germicides, preservatives and surfactants.
Reproductive toxin: A substance which has adverse effects on the male or female reproductive system. This may include early puberty, decreases in fertility or miscarriages. Developmental toxicity is a sub-category of reproductive toxicity. Reproductive toxicity is a relatively new field of study which is of growing concern. Very few chemicals have yet been tested for reproductive or developmental effects. A chemical may be categorized as a known or suspected reproductive toxin, depending on the amount and types of studies done.
Respiratory toxin: A substance which has an adverse effect on the functioning or structure of the respiratory system. Respiratory toxicants can produce a variety of acute and chronic effects, from local irritation and bronchitis to lung damage resulting in emphysema or cancer. Asthma and respiratory infections are other possible effects of exposure to respiratory toxins.
Sensitizer: A sensitizer is a substance which may, after repeated exposure, trigger severe allergic-type reactions to even a small amount of the substance. Some doctors now believe that some substances may also trigger sensitization to a wide number of substances, the condition known as multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). Organochloride pesticides and formaldehyde are two substances suspected of triggering MCS.
Skin toxicant: A substance which can result in short term or chronic skin irritation or damage. Contact dermatitis is the most common, but other possible effects include photosensitization, chloracne and skin cancer.
Sense organ toxicant: The senses of smell, vision, taste and hearing may be injured by a variety of physical, chemical and biological agents. Airbourne chemicals can cause eye irritation and in some cases result in permanent harm to vision. Some substances can result in hearing loss.
Teratogen: is a substance which can cause malformations of an embryo or fetus. This is a type of reproductive toxin.
Sources: Scorecard.org, Labour Environmental Alliance Society, Toxins and Cleaners brochure, Physical and Theoretical Chemisty Laboratory, Oxford University.
For more information on types of adverse health effects, go to Scorecard.org and click on Health Effects. Scorecard also provides information on health effects of a variety of chemical substances; click on About the Chemicals. Scorecard is a site of the Environmental Defense Network.
Websites about Hazardous Substances and their Health Effects
Environmental Defense Organization
US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services
National Library of Medicine
US National Safety Council, Environmental Health Center (EHC)
Vermont Safety Information Resources Inc (SIRI)
Vermont Safety Informaton Resources Inc (SIRI) – extensive list of links to sites with information from MSDS sheets and hazardous chemical information
Agency for Toxic substances and Disease Registry, Center for Disease Control, US Government
Another useful source of informaton is Environmental Health Perspectives [EHP], a peer reviewed journal published by the National Institute of Environmental Health Science. EHP is now an open access journal – all content is freely available to everyone online.
To use PubMed to find articles in EHP, follow the link below and use a search strategy that includes the journal name (Environmental Health Perspectives) AND the subject you are looking for. The [ta] following the journal title limits the search to articles within that journal, a process that has obvious limitations but that can be very helpful for journals that offer full access.
Excerpted from The Guide to Less Toxic Products
by The Environmental Health Association of Nova Scotia